TELEDYNE CONTINENTAL ENGINES AND ROLLS-ROYCE, PLC
Amendment 39-9490Docket 92-ANE-32
Revises AD 94-05-05, Amendment 39-8843.
Revision issued January 1996.
Applicability: Teledyne Continental Motors (TCM) Model C75, C85, C90, C125, C145, O-200, O-300, and
GO-300 series and Rolls-Royce, plc (R-R) C90, O-200 and O-300 series reciprocating engines, installed
on but not limited to American Champion models 7BCM, 7CCM, 7DC, S7DC, S7CCM, 7EC, S7EC,
7FC, 7JC, and 7ECA; Cessna Models 120, 140, 150, 170, 172, 172A-H, and 175; Luscombe Models 8E,
8F, and T-8F; Maule Models Bee Dee M-4, M-4, M-4C, M-4S, M-4T, M-4-210, M-4-210C, M-4-210S,
M-4-210T, and M-5-210C; Piper Models PA-18 and PA-19; Reims Aviation SA Models F172D, E, F, G,
H, K; F150G, H, J, K, L, M; FA150K, L; Swift Models GC-1A and GC-1B; Univair (Erco) Models 415-D, E,
and G; Univair (Forney) Models F-1 and F-1A; Univair (Alon) Model A-2 and Univair (Mooney) Model M-10
This airworthiness directive (AD) applies to each engine identified in the preceding applicability
provision, regardless of whether it has been modified, altered, or repaired in the area subject to
the requirements of this AD. For engines that have been modified, altered, or repaired so that
the performance of the requirements of this AD is affected, the owner/operator must use the
authority provided in paragraph (d) to request approval from the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA). This approval may address either no action, if the current configuration eliminates the
unsafe condition, or different actions necessary to address the unsafe condition described in
this AD. Such a request should include an assessment of the effect of the changed
configuration on the unsafe condition addressed by this AD. In no case does the presence of
any modification, alteration, or repair remove any engine from the applicability of this AD.
Compliance: Required as indicated, unless accomplished previously.
To prevent engine power loss and engine failure, accomplish the following:
(a) At the next cylinder removal from the engine, or engine overhaul, whichever occurs first, after the
effective date of this AD, inspect the cylinder rocker shaft bosses for cracks using one of the
following methods, and if cracked replace with a serviceable cylinder:
Certain cylinder cracks may be repaired by FAA-approved repair stations specifically rated to do
(1) Fluorescent penetrant inspection, as follows:
(i) The penetrant shall be a nontoxic, noncorrosive, highly fluorescent liquid capable of
penetrating fine discontinuities and, for aluminum castings, conforming to Aerospace
Material Specification (AMS) 3156. If a darkened enclosure is not used for examination,
AMS 3157 penetrant shall be used.
(ii) The emulsifier shall be composed of suitable oil or oil-like components together with such
additives as are necessary to provide a stable, nontoxic, noncorrosive, oil-miscible,
oil-emulsifying solution. Emulsifier shall not be used when AMS 3156 is used.
(iii) The developer shall be a highly absorbent, nonfluorescent and nontoxic powder, capable
of being used dry or a similar powder capable of being suspended in water. When the
suspension is used, the powder shall be thoroughly mixed with water to a concentration,
unless otherwise permitted, of not less than 0.2 lb per gallon and a uniform distribution
maintained by mechanical agitation.
(iv) The penetrant, the emulsifier (if used) and the developer shall be checked as often as
necessary to maintain proper control. The penetrant shall be discarded if it shows a
noticeable loss in penetrating power or marked contamination or when wax begins to
form on the sides of the tank and dip basket.
(v) A darkness booth or a similar darkness area with a filtered black light shall be provided.
The black light shall be at least equal to that produced by a 100 watt mercury vapor
projection spot lamp equipped with a filter to transmit wave lengths of between 3200 and
4000 Angstrom units and absorb substantially all visible light. The intensity of the light at
normal working distance shall be as specified by the purchaser but in no case shall be
lower than 580 micro-watts per square centimeter as measured with an appropriate
black light meter.
(vi) All parts shall be cleaned and dried in such a manner as to leave them free from grease,
oil, soaps, alkalies and other substances which would interfere with inspection. Vapor
degreasing is generally suitable for this purpose.
(vii) Parts shall be immersed in the penetrant or shall be sprayed or brushed with the
penetrant and shall be allowed to remain immersed in the penetrant or to stand for
sufficient time to allow satisfactory penetration into all discontinuities. This time shall,
unless otherwise specified, not be less than 5 minutes. The time for immersion or
standing will depend upon the character and fineness of the discontinuities, the
effectiveness of penetration increasing with time. Parts may be resprayed or
re-immersed after standing to increase sensitivity and aid in removal of penetrant.
(viii) Parts shall be removed from the penetrant and cleaned thoroughly using a medium which
will remove penetrant from the surface of parts; washing with water shall be used when
the penetrant is water washable or when an emulsifying agent is applied to surfaces of
parts to render the penetrant water washable. When emulsifiers are used, the parts shall
be dipped in the emulsifier and removed slowly for draining or shall be sprayed with
emulsifier and drained. Unless otherwise specified, the combined dipping and draining
time shall be 1 to 5 minutes. When other than water washable penetrants are used, the
penetrant shall be removed with a suitable cleaner or a suitable cleaner and lint-free
cloths. During cleaning, the parts may be viewed under a suitable black light to ensure
removal of the penetrant from the subrace of the part. Excessive cleaning which would
remove the penetrant from discontinuities shall be avoided.
(ix) When a wet developer is used, the developer shall be applied to the parts, immediately
after washing, by immersing the parts in the tank containing the water-suspended powder
or by spraying or flowing the suspension onto the parts. The suspension shall be suitably
agitated either during or immediately prior to application to parts. Immersed parts shall
be removed from the wet developer; excess developer shall be allowed to drain off all
parts. Special care shall be taken to remove excess developer from pockets, recesses,
holes, threads, and corners so that the developer will not mask indications.
(x) When a dry developer or no developer is used, the parts shall be dried as thoroughly as
possible by exposure to clean air. Drying of parts may be accomplished by evaporation
at room temperature or by placing the parts in a circulating warm air oven or in the air
stream of a hot air dryer. Excessive drying time or part temperatures higher than 80° C
(180° F) should be avoided to prevent evaporation of the penetrant.
(xi) When a dry developer is used, the developing powder shall be applied uniformly over the
areas of the parts to be inspected by either dusting or powder-box immersion.
(xii) After sufficient time has been allowed to develop indications, parts shall be examined
under a black light. Examination shall be made in a darkened enclosure unless AMS
3157 penetrant is used, in which case examination may be made under normal shop
lighting but shaded from direct sunlight.
(xiii) When greater sensitivity is desired, the parts may be heated to 65°-85°C (150°-185°F)
before immersion in the penetrant and/or before black light examination. To prevent
evaporation, preheated parts shall remain fully immersed in the penetrant until cooled.
(xiv) Parts shall be cleaned, as necessary, to remove penetrant and developer.
(xv) Interpretation of the indications revealed by this inspection procedure and final
disposition of the parts shall be the responsibility of only qualified personnel having
experience with fluorescent penetrant inspection.
(xvi) Parts having discontinuities (cracks) shall be rejected.
((2) Dye penetrant inspection, as follows:
Military Specification MIL-I-6866 and American Society of Testing Materials specifications ASTM
E1417-93 and E165-9 contain additional information on dye penetrant inspection processes.
(i) Preparation: clean and dry all parts in such a manner as to leave the surfaces free from
grease, oil, soaps, alkalies, and other substances which would interfere with inspection.
Vapor degreasing is generally suitable for this purpose.
(ii) Penetrant Application Procedure: after preparation, spray or brush the parts with the
penetrant, and allow to stand for not less than 5 minutes. The effectiveness of the
penetrant increases if left standing for a longer time, as the penetrant will reach finer
(iii) Penetrant Cleaning: clean the parts thoroughly using a medium which will remove
penetrant from the surfaces of parts; wash with water when the penetrant is water soluble.
When other than water soluble penetrants are used, the penetrant shall be removed with
a suitable cleaner. Avoid excessive cleaning which would remove the penetrant from
(iv) Drying: dry the parts as thoroughly as possible. Drying of parts may be accomplished by
evaporation at room temperature or by placing the parts in a circulating warm air oven or
in the air stream of a hot air dryer. Avoid excessive drying time or drying temperatures
above 75°C (165°F) to prevent excessive evaporation of the penetrant. If heat is used for
drying parts, cool parts to approximately 50°C (120°F) before proceeding to the
(v) Developing: apply the developer to the dry parts as lightly and as evenly as possible,
using as thin a coating of developer as is possible. A translucent film is adequate. Mix
wet developer by agitation immediately prior to applying it. After applying the developer,
take care that no penetrant indication is disturbed or obliterated in subsequent handling.
(vi) Examination: examine the developed penetrant indications in accordance with the dye
penetrant manufacturer's instructions. Examine parts for indications of discontinuities
open to the surface.
(vii) Final cleaning: clean the parts following the inspection to remove penetrant and
NOTE 1: Caution: because of differences among penetrants, take care to ensure that the final cleaner, the
penetrant, the penetrant remover, and the developer are suitable for use with each other.
NOTE 2: Caution: all penetrant materials should be kept as free from moisture as possible.
NOTE 3: Caution: most penetrants, cleaning agents, and developer suspensions are low flash point
material; use caution to prevent fires.
(3) Etching inspection, as follows:
(i) For TCM C75, C85, C90, and O-200 and R-R C90 and O-200 series engines, in
accordance with paragraph 13-7 of TCM Overhaul Manual Form X-30010, dated January
(ii) For TCM C125, C145, O-300, and GO-300 and R-R O-300 series engines, in
accordance with paragraphs 5(b)(1), 5(b)(2), and 5(b)(3) of TCM Overhaul Manual Form
X-30013, dated June 1982.
(b) At the next cylinder removal from the engine, or engine overhaul, whichever occurs first, after the
effective date of this AD, dimensionally inspect cylinders for looseness of the rocker shaft in
accordance with page 22, paragraph 5, and Table IX of TCM Overhaul Manual Form X-30013,
dated June 1982, for TCM C125, C145, O-300, GO-300 and R-R O-300 series engines, and the
dimensions table in paragraph 13-8 of TCM Overhaul Manual Form X-30010, dated January
1984, for TCM C75, C85, C90, O-200 and R-R C90 and O-200 series engines; as applicable.
(1) Cylinders that do not exhibit dimensional looseness of the rocker shaft beyond the limits
specified in the applicable TCM overhaul manual may be returned to service.
(2) For cylinders that exhibit dimensional looseness of the rocker shaft, beyond the limits
specified in the applicable TCM overhaul manual, accomplish the following:
(i) Replace with a serviceable cylinder; or
(ii) Install bushings in accordance with the instructions on page 27 of TCM Overhaul Manual,
Form X-30013, dated June 1982, for TCM C125, C145, O-300, GO-300 and R-R O-300
series engines; or the instructions on page 85 of TCM Overhaul Manual Form X-30010,
dated January 1984, for TCM Models C75, C85, C90, O-200 and RR C90 and O-200
series engines; as applicable.
(iii) After repairing a cylinder perform an additional inspection of the cylinder rocker shaft
bosses for cracks using fluorescent penetrant, dye penetrant, or etching methods, and
replace, if necessary, with a serviceable cylinder.
(c) Thereafter, at each subsequent cylinder or engine overhaul, reinspect cylinder rocker bosses and
rocker shafts in accordance with paragraphs (a) and (b) of this AD.
(d) An alternative method of compliance or adjustment of the compliance time that provides an
acceptable level of safety may be used if approved by the Manager, Atlanta Aircraft Certification
Office. The request should be forwarded through an appropriate FAA Maintenance Inspector, who
may add comments and then send it to the Manager, Atlanta Aircraft Certification Office.
Information concerning the existence of approved alternative methods of compliance with this
AD, if any, may be obtained from the Atlanta Aircraft Certification Office.
(e) Special flight permits may be issued in accordance with sections 21.197 and 21.199 of the
Federal Aviation Regulations (14 CFR 21.197 and 21.199) to operate the aircraft to a location
where the requirements of this AD can be accomplished.
(f) This amendment becomes effective on February 13, 1996.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Jerry Robinette, Aerospace Engineer, Atlanta Aircraft Certification Office, FAA, Small Airplane
Directorate, Campus Building, 1701 Columbia Avenue, Suite 2-160, College Park, GA. 30337-2748;
telephone (404) 305-7371, fax (404) 305-7348.